RFEA Publishing Standards

For articles written in French, go to Guide de rédaction

Articles may not exceed 30,000 signs (including characters, punctuation and spaces) to be sent to the editors in chief (information here). Two 150-word abstracts, one in French and one in English, must also accompany these three copies. Quotations, titles, names and dates must be verified for accuracy.


The article must be typed double-space and on one side only, with large-enough margins to allow for corrections.

For book and review titles, ship names, Latin terms, foreign words, or exceptionally for words the author wishes to underline, use italics. The RFEA does not use bold type in its texts.

There should be no space between paragraphs, only between parts of the article; spaces before and after secondary titles should be limited to two lines at the end of a paragraph and one line before the next text.

II - BIBLIOGRAPHY (on the topic of the article)
WORKS CITED (at the end of the article)

For articles written in French, please refer to norms established by the Imprimerie nationale (Lexique des règles typographiques en usage à l’Imprimerie Nationale. Imprimerie Nationale, 2002), and to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for articles written in English. The following norms include a certain number of adaptations the RFEA editorial committee has added to improve clarity and coherence.

Articles written in English:

Bradbury, Malcolm & Howard Temperley, eds. Introduction to American Studies. London: Longman, 1981. 86-103.

Buell, Lawrence. “Moby Dick as Sacred Text.” New Essays on Moby Dick. Richard H. Brodhead, eds. Cambridge : Cambridge UP, 1986. 53-72.

Jehlen, Myra. “The Novel and the Middle Class in America.” Ideology and Classic American Literature. Ed. Sacvan Bercovitch & Myra Jehlen. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1986. 125-144.

Melville, Herman. Moby Dick. Harrison Hayford & Hershel Parker, ed. New York: Norton, 1967.

Articles written in French:

Lejeune, Philippe. « Le Pacte autobiographique (bis) », Poétique 56 (1983) : 416-434.

Richard, Claude. Lettres américaines : essais. Aix-en-Provence : Alinéa, 1987.

Wieviorka, Michel, dir. L’empire américain ? Paris : Balland, 2004.

Stone, Albert E., éd. The American Autobiography : A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice-Hall, 1981.

Comments relative to these examples:

• In the list of works cited, the first surname appears in bold and small capital letters. If there are several authors, the first name comes after the surname only for the first author cited.

• a single publication location: if it is necessary to mention the state, use the state abbreviation code (MA, OE, TX, etc.) without spaces or periods.

• eliminate periods in-between letters of an initial or an abbreviation.

• simplify the name of the publishing company (ex: Cambridge UP).

• a colon ( : ) should be preceded with a space for French titles.

• these types of quotation marks « » should be used in an article written in French. French quotation marks are preceded and followed by a space. Otherwise use English quotation marks: “ ”.

• for page numbers (416-434), no space before and after the slash, no “p.”, no figure elision.

• maintain the same double-space and character corpus as in the article in order to maintain clear legibility.


References in the text

References or quotations relative to arguments discussed must be indicated within the article’s corpus (or in end notes), in parentheses, after the quotation, and in abbreviated form. Only in the list of works cited, after the notes, should the title and the complete reference be quoted. In the case of a citation, the number(s) of the page(s) must always be indicated.

  •  If the article only refers to the novel of the author:

    …” (Melville 116).

  •  If the author was mentioned in the paragraph, but several titles are possible:
    …” (MD 116).
  •  If it is obvious that the article refers to MD:
    …” (116).
  •  If the list of the work cited contains several works by the same author, two possibilities: add to the author’s name an abbreviated title in italics or the publication date. To add a page number, move comma after publication date.
    …” (Melville, MD 116).
    ...” (Fronstin, 2005).
    ...” (Gordon 1996, 223-228)
  •  If one wants the chapter to be mentioned:
    …” (32 : 116).


    They must be limited to a minimum and presented after skipping a page at the end of the article (same line spacing and characters; no notes at the bottom of the pages). They generally should be non-bibliographical and provide complementary information that the simple reference within the text does not offer.

    However, if the article does not include a “Works Cited” portion, the reference in the note should be presented as follows:

    Jeffrey Steele, The Representation of the Self in the American Renaissance (Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1987) 40-66.

    Vine Deloria, Jr., “Government by Default,” Revue Française d’Etudes Américaines 38 (1988): 323-330.

    In keeping with the article’s language, the names of the months and seasons must be translated: Gideon Rose, “The Bush Administration Gets Real”, The New York Times (19 août 2005).

    For internet references, the name of the author (whenever possible), the article or report title, the URL address (placed in-between < > ), as well as the creation and consultation date must be indicated.

    Note references

    A note reference should be indicated by a superscript and without parentheses. It must be placed before the punctuation or the quotation mark ending a citation, immediately after the word it is linked to. It must then be followed by the French period.

    Example: … in French, this is called “une épinglette 3”.

    The note reference follows the sentence in English: “…the condition of women.”8


    If the citation is longer than four lines, it must be presented in indented form (ten spaces), without quotation marks, and in italics. The italics of the original citation is transcribed in Roman characters. Use the same characters, the same corpus, and the same line spacing.

    Shorter citations must be surrounded by quotation marks within the article’s text: “…”

    End quotation marks are placed after punctuation if the latter is linked to the quoted phrase (complete citation introduced by a colon). Otherwise, the final period is outside of the quotation marks.

    In English, place commas and periods within the quotation marks; but not the semi-colon nor the colon.

    For a secondary citation (found within an already-quoted citation), use quotation marks as follows: “ . . . . ‘........’ . . . .”.

    For all cuts within a quotation, use suspension points set within brackets: […]. In English, do not place spaces in-between the suspension points: …

    Following an indented quotation, the first line of the author’s written text is placed at the margin if the reasoning or commentary of the quotation is to be pursued. Only place it further if a new idea is to be introduced.

    Capital letters in French published works

    If the title begins with a definite article and an adjective precedes the noun, both are in capital letters (Le Dernier Jour d’un condamné). When the title is made up of a sentence, only the first word is written in capital letters (Pour qui sonne le glas). The same goes for a title beginning with an indefinite article or a preposition (Sur la route).

    Other examples: La Critique de l’Ecole des femmes, Les Misérables, Le Bruit et la Fureur, La Divine Comédie, La Lettre écarlate, Un tramway nommé Désir.

    A definite article preceding the proper noun of a published work is not placed in italics nor capital letters unless it is undeniably part of the title and not modified (translated or contracted).

    Double titles: the definite article preceding the second part (introduced by “or”, or by a colon) should not, contrary to the other words, be in capital letters (Moby Dick ou la Baleine blanche).


    All review and book titles must be in italics, as well as the names of films and ships, land or air vehicles, and laws. Organization and association names should be in Roman characters.


    The XIXe siecle (small capital letters); le XVIIIe amendement à la Constitution (large capital letters). In English, write: the nineteenth century, the Eighteenth Amendment


    Authors must respect the MLA norms for articles written in English and Imprimerie nationale norms for those written in French:

    In English: no space before : ; ? ! and no space before and after a slash (long).

    On the other hand, all signs are preceded and followed by a space in French.


    MLA, MIT, PUF, RFEA, UMI (capital letters without periods).